RE: Devanagari Consonant RA Rule R2

From: Apurva Joshi (
Date: Wed Nov 08 2000 - 14:56:46 EST

The RA[sup] is seen applied to the independent vowel Vocalic R (U+ 090B) in
printed samples in Sanskrit.

There are atleast the following words that contain the above:
NaiRiTa (the name of a demon)
=> 0928 090B Ra[sup] 0924
NaiRiTi (the goddess Durga, slayer of demons)
=> 0928 090B Ra[sup] 0924 0940
NaiRiTYa (south-west)
=> 0928 090B Ra[sup] 0924 094D 092F

The Devanagari shaping engine in Uniscribe currently recognises a 0930 094D
preceding only consonants, to be duely reordered to the end of the syllable
and replaced with Ra[sup]. Whether this be extended to independent vowels
had figured in internal discussions when the shaping engine was being
planned. To the best of my knowledge, extending this to be applicable to
Vocalic R would be a special case, because Ra[sup] is not seen to be applied
to any other Indic vowel in words that are native to Indic languages.

Would be glad to hear from any expert on this list, if there are
phonemes/sounds in any language, which when transliterated into Devanagari,
would require the Ra[sup] to be applied to an independent vowel.
eg. vowel E Ra[sup] etc.


-----Original Message-----
From: Eric Mader/Cupertino/IBM []
Sent: Wednesday, November 08, 2000 10:24 AM
To: Unicode List
Subject: Devanagari Consonant RA Rule R2


In the Devanagari section of the standard, rule R2, on page 217 of the
version 3.0 standard, states, "If the dead consoant RA[d] preecesd either a
consonant *or an independent vowel,* then it is replaced by the superscript
nonspacing mark RA[sup]..."

I've never seen a RA[sup] applied to an indpenedent vowel, and non of the
software I can find that renders Devanagari does this; they all render a
dead RA followed by the vowel. Is the rule in error, or is it written to
cover some obscure case that most software doesn't bother with?

Eric Mader

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