Re: Joined "ti" coded as "Ɵ" in PDF

Don Osborn dzo at
Thu Mar 17 15:44:19 CDT 2016

Thanks all for the feedback.

Doug, It may well be my clipboard (running Windows 7 on this particular 
laptop). Get same results pasting into Word and EmEditor.

So, when I did a web search on "internaƟonal," as previously mentioned, 
and come up with a lot of results (mostly PDFs), were those also a 
consequence of many not fully Unicode compliant conversions by others?

A web search on what you came up with - "Interna��onal" - yielded many 
more (82k+) results, again mostly PDFs, with terms like "interna onal" 
(such as what Steve noted) and "interna<onal" and perhaps others (given 
the nature of, or how Google interprets, the private use character?).

Searching within the PDF document already mentioned, "international" 
comes up with nothing (which is a major fail as far as usability). 
Searching the PDF in a Firefox browser window, only "internaƟonal" finds 
the occurrences of what displays as "international." However after 
downloading the document and searching it in Acrobat, only a search for 
"interna��onal" will find what displays as "international."

A separate web search on "Eīects" came up with 300+ results, including 
some GoogleBooks which in the texts display "effects" (as far as I 
checked). So this is not limited to Adobe?

Jörg, With regard to "Identity H," a quick search gives the impression 
that this encoding has had a fairly wide and not so happy impact, even 
if on the surface level it may have facilitated display in a particular 
style of font in ways that no one complains about.

Altogether a mess, from my limited encounter with it. There must have 
been a good reason for or saving grace of this solution?


On 3/17/2016 2:17 PM, Steve Swales wrote:
> Yes, it seems like your mileage varies with the PDF viewer/interpreter/converter.  Text copied from Preview on the Mac replaces the ti ligature with a space.  Certainly not a Unicode problem, per se, but an interesting problem nevertheless.
> -steve
>> On Mar 17, 2016, at 11:11 AM, Doug Ewell <doug at> wrote:
>> Don Osborn wrote:
>>> Odd result when copy/pasting text from a PDF: For some reason "ti" in
>>> the (English) text of the document at
>>> is coded as "Ɵ". Looking more closely at the original text, it does
>>> appear that the glyph is a "ti" ligature (which afaik is not coded as
>>> such in Unicode).
>> When I copy and paste the PDF text in question into BabelPad, I get:
>>> Interna��onal Order and the Distribu��on of Iden��ty in 1950 (By
>>> invita��on only)
>> The "ti" ligatures are implemented as U+10019F, a Plane 16 private-use
>> character.
>> Truncating this character to 16 bits, which is a Bad Thing™, yields
>> U+019F LATIN CAPITAL LETTER O WITH MIDDLE TILDE. So it looks like either
>> Don's clipboard or the editor he pasted it into is not fully
>> Unicode-compliant.
>> Don's point about using alternative characters to implement ligatures,
>> thereby messing up web searches, remains valid.
>> --
>> Doug Ewell | | Thornton, CO ����

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