Re: S with comma/cedilla

From: John Clews (
Date: Sun Sep 06 1998 - 02:17:02 EDT

In message <> "Herman Ranes" writes:
> It comes to my mind that there exists a romanisation/transliteration
> standard for Arabic which uses a selection of consonants with cedilla
> below...
> Any references?

ISO 233 (transliteration of Arabic) uses DOT BELOW certain
characters. Several European standard (practices) in libraries and
publishing are also closely related to this.

In cartographic applications, dot below is unsatisfactory as it can
be confused with a dot for a town. Therefore cedilla is often
substituted for the dot. See for example the submissions by Iran in
the various proceedings of the United Nations Conference on the
Standardization of Geographical Names, held every five years.

In this context, those who use it often may be unaware of the
original DOT BELOW/COMMA BELOW substitution, and assume that the
cedilla is the original.

Some publishers also follow the same substitution, e.g. in Germany.

There is no requirement for comma below, or cedilla below, the
additional Latin characters used in translating Arabic, certainly not
as precomposed characters.

Best wishes

John Clews

John Clews, SESAME Computer Projects, 8 Avenue Rd, Harrogate, HG2 7PG
Email:;  tel: +44 (0) 1423 888 432
Committee Chair of ISO/TC46/SC2: Conversion of Written Languages;
Committee Member of ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC22/WG20: Internationalization;
Committee Member of CEN/TC304: Information and Communications
 Technologies: European Localization Requirements
Committee Member of the Foundation for Endangered Languages;
Committee Member of ISO/IEC/JTC1/SC2: Coded Character Sets

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